Minijob, Midijob and health insurance: Health insurance at Minijob

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The health insurance for minijobs, the so-called 400-Euro-Jobs is not, in contrast to a normal job, partly taken over by the employee. What possibilities does a minijobber have to insure themselves?

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Important note: This entry contains content and information that may be out of date, eg due to legal or statistical changes. Because it can still be helpful to get an overview of the topic, you can still find it here.

Here writes for you:

Simone Janson Simone JansonSimone Janson is publisher, German Top20 blogger and Consultant for HR communication.


Is this calculated annually or monthly?

Recently the question was raised in the forum, whether the merit for Minijobs is calculated for the whole year or monthly. Since the topic is somewhat more complicated, minijobs have written their own blog post on the topic of income limit.

No insurance just about the minijob

Only over his Minijobb you can not insure yourself. You still need an insurable main job as an employee or self-employed person. Or you are insured in the family insurance!

Only one insurance job is possible

In addition to an insurance job requiring 400-Euro, a single 400 Eurojob is also possible, which in this case can still be billed by the employer on a flat-rate basis.

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However, if several mini-jobs are carried out in addition to a main job, all of them are added to the main job. Employers and employees then pay all taxes that are also incurred in a “normal” employment relationship. If the total amount of the remuneration paid is not higher than 800 euros, the midijob rule applies - see below.

Minijob with grossverdienst up to 400 Euro per month

The employees do not pay any taxes. The employers pay 25 percent flat-rate contributions, and in the case of minijobs in private households even 12 percent. Employers and employers have the same labor obligations as their other employees compared to their marginal employees.

This applies, for example, continued pay, paid leave and continued pay on holiday. The lump-sum fees for mini-jobs are only paid to a central office - the mini-job center in Essen.

Several minijobs

It is possible to practice several minijobs simultaneously, but not with the same employer. The merits of all the occupations are aggregated. They may not be over 400 Euro.

As soon as the limit is exceeded, social insurance contributions are due for the entire merit and are, for example, expelled from student health insurance. If someone has two minijobs, it may be possible to make a slight increase in the wage to 401 Euro or more to the midijob (see below).

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Independence and minijob

If an independent activity is carried out as a minjob, ie with a merit up to 400 Euro, this is insurant. If you earn more than 400 Euro yourself, you must voluntarily insure your health.

Anyone who practices one or more mini-jobs in addition to self-employment must follow the same rules as for mini-jobs alongside a main occupation (see above under 3.). If an independent and non-independent activity with 400 Euro is exercised side by side, the same rules apply as with several mini-jobs, ie an activity should become the main activity.

If self-employed and non-self-employed activity are carried out side by side and you earn more than 400 Euro with both, the main activity is earned more.

Midi Jobs

Jobs with a merit from 400,01 to 800,00 Euro (for one or more jobs together) are midijobs for which lower social insurance contributions are calculated. The social contributions to be paid by the employee begin with 4% (as of 401 EUR / month) and rise linearly up to the full share of 21% at 800 EUR Arbeitsvergelt.

This rule does not apply if the secondary job is exercised with a work allowance from 400 to 800 EUR in addition to a main pension obligation of more than 800 EUR. The full social insurance contributions of employers and employees are then payable for both employments.

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The basis for determining the employee's contribution is not the salary, but an amount calculated according to a certain formula. The employee can voluntarily add up his pension contributions in order to receive a higher pension afterwards.

Private health insurance

As an employer, you pay a flat-rate amount for Social Security for Minijober if the employee is compulsorily, voluntarily or family-insured in statutory health insurance.

For mini -jobbers, who are privately insured by the sick, the lump-sum contribution to the health insurance is not!

What changes in health reform?

The answer to this question is: Nothing! If you employ an insurance-free 400 Euro Minijobber, you will continue to pay a lump-sum contribution to the statutory health insurance amounting to 13 percent of your salary.

Of course only if the employee is compulsorily, voluntarily or family-insured in the statutory health insurance. The lump-sum contribution therefore also applies to persons who already pay health insurance contributions up to the limit of the contributions due to their main employment.

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Minijobber: What to do if you were not previously insured?

This is also the case: minijobbers, who were not previously insured by the sick. Because at the beginning of the year 2009 all sick people must now insure themselves. This group of people also includes Minijobber!

In official gazette this means: The health reform that came into effect in April 2007 provides that persons who have no other health insurance cover and were last covered by statutory health insurance or were previously not legally or privately insured, and not full-time self-employed or health insurance free or would be insurance-free in the exercise of their professional activity in Germany, are sick (and therefore also nursing) insurable.

What health insurance does the minijobber have to insure?

Responsible for health insurance is the statutory health insurance company, which has recently been insured, even if this insurance is due for decades. If the original health insurance no longer exists, the legal successor is responsible. For formerly private insured persons, insurance under the statutory Krakenversicherung is out of the question. Private health insurance is responsible for them.

Can you choose your health insurance as a minijobber?

Anyone who has never been covered by statutory or private health insurance can freely choose the health insurance company. Exception: Officer or full-time self-employed. These must contact private health insurance. The group of people who are not insured may also include minijobbers who have not or no longer have health insurance. The competent health insurance company determines whether there is a compulsory insurance as previously uninsured.

Mini-jobbers who become insured under the new legislation will have to look after their health insurance and tell their employer. If you do not do that and get caught later, you must at least retrospectively post everything since 1. January 2009 replenishment - this can, depending on how long the period is, already quite steep.

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In return, employers whose minijobbers who are subject to insurance under the new statutory health insurance scheme in the statutory health and long-term care insurance should point out that they must turn to their competent health insurance fund.

Mini jobs for students

Deutsche Rentenversicherung points out that pupils must in principle pay the same taxes as normal employees. However, those who only use the summer holidays to work are engaged in short-term employment. Then no contributions have to be paid out of this employment, no matter how high the merit is.

“Short-term” employment is always present if it does not exceed a total of two months or fifty working days in the current year. It must be determined from the outset that it will no longer be.

If the employment lasts longer, so it is also regularly worked outside of the holidays, it remains insurable if it is a minijob. Here, the whole year can be earned monthly up to 400 Euro without paying pension contributions. This is done by the employer who pays a lump sum for pension and health insurance.

Employers can look forward to it

Employers in private households can be happy. From January 1, 2009, these can deduct 400 percent of the total expenditure from their income tax for a marginally paid employee or 10 euro mini-jobber in private households, instead of 20 percent as before. This is provided for in the “Law on the Promotion of Family and Household Services”, which the Federal Council approved on Friday, December 19, 2008.

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From the 1. January 2009 pay employers for a slightly salaried employee in the private household 14,27 per cent of the contributions of the minijob wage. Due to the new legal regulation, they can then deduct 20 per cent of the total expenses, but a maximum of 565 euros per year, directly from their tax credit. This gave an even greater incentive for employers to register their budgetary aid at the Minijob headquarters and thus to employ them legally.

For example, if a household is earning 320 euros a month, the employer pays 45,66 euros per month for taxes. If the tax advantages are opposed to this, the employer will be charged a monthly extra charge of only 3,16 Euro.

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  1. To follow debate on this post
  2. All debates follow
  1. Frederik

    Exactly on Minjobs I have long been looking for suitable posts, thank you very much!

  2. Paul

    It is not true that self-employed must have a private health insurance. This is a myth that goes on in Germany. I have public health insurance. I hope the article will be corrected because it's misleading.

    • Simone Janson

      Thank you, but it dosn't say a private health insurance.

  3. Alice

    Hello! I need help..
    For an 450 € job is paid attention to the monthly salary (450 €) or to the 5400 € in the year (12 × 450 €)?
    In other words, can I earn 100 € in January, 500 € in February, then 750 € in March, and 450 € in the remaining months? Also results in 5400 €.

    • Simone Janson

      I think you can ask this at the Minijobzentrale - before I say something wrong.

  4. Romy Kohsmund

    I as a small business would like someone on 100,00 € basis employ. Where do I have to register this everywhere - who can help me?

    • Simone Janson

      Hello Romy,
      I would ask directly at the minijob center. Unfortunately, we are not allowed to provide legal advice in individual cases,

  5. Lia

    I make an 6 full-time internship and earn 450 € per month. I am not registered with the employment office and must therefore voluntarily insure myself. Because of my 450 € almost only half left. If I ask my employer to increase the wage to 451 €, I still have to pay so much KV? And what will change for my employer?

    Kind regards and thank you.

    • Simone Janson

      Hello Lisi, I must also say to you: We can not give legal advice in individual cases, but your question has already been treated in several places.
      Minijob, midijob, etc. from 2013
      For you in my opinion particularly important: health insurance - but how?
      Here is 35 further contributions to the topic.
      Incidentally, if there is too little money left after the deduction of the KV, it is also possible to increase the amount of HartzIV.

  6. Kati

    Hello Mrs. Janson,
    my question. At the moment I have a permanent 400 Euro job. Incidentally, I work freelance and earn on average 700 Euro. I would like to announce my 400 Euro job also with several minijobs that I execute freelance (I look after 4 families) Social and health insurance?
    Greetings Kati

    • Simone Janson

      Hello Kati, we may not give legal advice in individual cases, but your question has already been treated in several places. Please do not confuse a minijob with self-employment, which is insured differently. In addition to this post, which I hope you have read carefully, I would like to mention more to you:
      Minijob, midijob, etc. from 2013
      For you in my opinion particularly important: health insurance - but how?
      Here is 35 further contributions to the topic.

  7. pierpaolo

    Good morning Mrs Janson. I have a short question: Have I as a minijobber, who earns less than 400 € monthly, entitled to health insurance grants? If so, how should I apply?

    Thanks in advance
    Best regards

    • Simone Janson

      Hello Pierpaolo,
      you can find some articles here:

  8. Krippendorf

    if someone is taxed, is in the pension procedure, has logged out of the Alg 1 reference and has now accepted a minijob with waiving insurance (14,9 h weekly).
    What should he be aware of, or what are his obligations, he must report everything, (health insurance for pensioners (DRD), DRV) or is the report to the minijobzentrale by the AG?
    I'm looking forward to an answer.
    MfG Gisella

    • Simone Janson

      Hello Gisella,
      the legal services law unfortunately forbids me to answer detailed legal questions in individual cases. Sorry.

  9. BCC

    I would be glad if you can answer my question! I have accepted an 24 hour job so I do not have to pay health insurance contributions as a self-employed person. Now the health insurance company tells me that I must give my income from the independence.
    Who can give me information? Do I have to pass on this information? Is my income subject to health insurance or social insurance?
    Thank you and mfG

    • Simone Janson

      'Hi there.
      what is an 24-hour Jobe? In the week, in the month, in the day?
      Just press the search - I've written something here. Ultimately, it depends on how much you earn where and where you work more:

  10. Simone Janson

    For that, I had the postponed jobben while studying: In which, under which conditions one can stay despite the job in the student health insurance (which is still going on at your age, unless you are already studying 14 subject, not university students) and when you must voluntarily insure yourself.
    Unfortunately, you have to look for the rest: For legal reasons, I can not make legal advice in individual cases. Otherwise I would go directly to the individual cases.

  11. Marcus

    yes already clear, I also meant that the KV PV must be paid from own pocket

  12. Simone Janson

    No, that's in the text. Please read carefully under “Mini job with gross earnings up to 400 euros per month”:

    “The workers do not pay any taxes…”

  13. Marcus

    Hello Mrs. Janson, I have a fictional question.

    Assuming a student wants to go to work, and is no longer family insurance (health insurance), would like to go home from the job with as much money as possible. Is an 400 € job (minijob) better, or a midijob with 401 €?

    I'm fictitious about the money, which after KV (Minijob) deduction or after the legal deductions (Midijob) remains.

    Many Thanks.

    • Simone Janson

      Hi Mark,
      in principle you have to pay a minijob just no charges. However, it depends again on which jobs you have and how you are insured, which could only be the subject of a detailed consultation. There is also an article on the topic of job-related studies and insurance:

      • Marcus

        assumed it was a full-time student, 27 years old. normal sick as a student, and the boss offers the possibility minijob or midijob. where would the student get more money?

        do I see this correctly?

        at minijob there would be 400 € of which the KV and PV would be paid

        at midijob it would be approximately 360 € however, however, since the KV PV RV and AV had already been eradicated

  14. Simone Janson

    Hello Damaris,
    apart from the fact that I have not understood your question (social insurance is one thing, tax different): I may not answer your question unfortunately due to the law service law.
    Maybe a trade union, a professional association or the mini-job center can help.
    Simone Janson

  15. Damaris


    I have correctly understood, if I would like 2 or several 400 eurojobs. Can I take responsibility for social insurance if I voluntarily pay the tax and other insurance myself, so I would like to avoid as black sheep? Is that possible?
    I am looking forward to a response.

    Kind regards and a nice Sunday,

  16. Simone Janson

    Hello Mrs. Eggers,
    I can not give advice in individual cases, and therefore I can only make a general attempt to make an explanation:
    Clearly, the legislature foreseen how to meet the health insurance requirement:
    (The rated contributions are, however, from 2009, possibly not all more current ..)

    However, what is not planned is that you deserve so blatantly little. It would then presumably assume that the people still working black next to (just to make the thought behind such laws times to clarify).

    In this case, however, this possibility:

    Overall, a problematic issue, because the social insurance regulations around light years behind the reality lag!

    Simone Janson

  17. erika eggers

    Hello, have a question. What can a young woman from Latvia (already 2 years in Germany) take to be finally insured. She works as an independent cleaning agent (with trade license) and earns about 100,00 EURO monthly. Her husband is also not insured and does not work at the moment.

    Since there is a health insurance obligation in Germany, there must also be a possibility to meet them.
    Thank you LG erika eggers

  18. E. Müller

    Hi there! I am already “controlled” by my health insurance company (I can no longer get sick pay) and ALG 1 also expires in two weeks. I applied for a disability pension, which is currently in opposition proceedings. I don't get HartzIV either, because I own a small rented apartment (rental income around 200 euros net), which I bought in my good times. Do I still get at least a subsidy for my health insurance from the group?

    • Simone Janson

      Hello E. Müller,
      due to the law service law, I am unfortunately not allowed to answer any legal questions in the individual case, but this also does not. Here, however, you should find the answer to your question:

      Simone Janson

  19. Daniela

    If I want / want to insure myself voluntarily, my children are insured on me, do a minijob, then the possibility exists to add the minijob, so I am again, after deduction of the KV contribution, with 400, - €? Or am I already in the midi-job area?

    Thank you,


  20. Simone Janson

    Hello Daniela,
    Thank you for your inquiry. This is again a case study, which I am not allowed to answer because of the law service law.
    Basically, according to my knowledge, everyone who earns between 400 and 800 Euro in the midijob area.
    And children are basically free of charge.
    In case of doubt, the hotline of the Minijob headquarters may help with such questions:

  21. Simone Janson

    Hello Aseret,
    thank you for the hint. No idea if this works in your case (and I can not make legal advice, unfortunately) - but you have read this post:
    Maybe this helps?

    Simone Janson

  22. Aseret

    Unfortunately, it does not always pay the ARGE. I am currently doing an (unpaid) internship - do not get any benefits. So also no health insurance - I have to pay myself.

  23. star cooks

    Yes the whole topic is not easy. I know from my own experience


  24. Simone Janson

    In the meantime, everyone in Germany is obliged to take out health insurance:
    An overview of the health insurance obligation can be found here:

  25. Real Estate Essen

    What does it look like if you only have to live from a mini-job (400 Euro) and you just pay rent and can buy food?
    Can not be that you then is not even insured. Someone has to take over, if you can not afford it yourself, right? Do you have to go to work, or how does it work?
    Thanks and regards

    Sure, the sowge pays. My son has also done this many years before he finally made the leap into independence. So do not worry, the Arge helps them.

  26. Simone Janson

    Unfortunately, I can not give legal advice in individual cases. For further information please contact the employment agency or the responsible ARGE.

  27. Isabella

    What does it look like if you only have to live from a mini-job (400 Euro) and you just pay rent and can buy food?
    Can not be that you then is not even insured. Someone has to take over, if you can not afford it yourself, right? Do you have to go to work, or how does it work?
    Thanks and regards

  28. Simone Janson

    Stands in the first sentence.
    In all other respects, I explicitly point out that I am not allowed to provide legal advice, but only to provide information.

  29. Bernd

    You write, as a mini jobber I can not insure myself health insurance ...
    But if I voluntarily assure myself, or do I see something wrong?

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